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This table sets out the output types for REF-category 'physical artefacts', including a broad definition and examples, which are provided for guidance only and do not represent a definitive list.

Output type REF eligible? In scope of the Open Access Policy?


Artefacts, objects or craftworks, exhibited, commissioned or otherwise presented or offered in the public domain, for example visual arts, craft and cultural creations.  This may take the form of moving image, sonic, visual or other digital media or written text, or a combination of these.

Illustration Y N
Sculpture Y N
Media installations Y N
Ceramics Y N
Jewellery Y N
Metalwork Y N
Buildings Y N
Cultural artefacts such as large permanent public sculptures Y N

Devices and products

An element, system or substance developed to perform a particular function, set, or combination of functions.  Incorporates developing the concept and the design and development of any chemical, mechanical, electronic and software components, and where appropriate the overall system architecture.  Use may be functional, aesthetic or commercial.

May be physical including chemical or compound, e.g. medicines Y N
May include digital/virtual products for particular functions, e.g. gaming, analysis, display Y N
May include services, e.g. transportation, energy supply, public broadcasting, healthcare systems Y N
May be associated with the manufacturing and refinement of other devices Y N