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This table sets out the output types for REF-category 'Other', including a broad definition and examples, which are provided for guidance only and do not represent a definitive list.

Output type REF eligible? In scope of the Open Access Policy?


A translation of a work or body of works by another author or authors, informed by critical evaluation of the sources (such as earlier manuscripts, texts, documents and letters), and by critical analysis of the work's original cultural context for the new readership. 

Translations may also include a scholarly introductiono and explanatory notes or contextual analysis.  Translation may enhance existing understanding of the material on question, and may provide evidence of creativity in its own right.



Other forms of assessable output meeting the definition of research* but not captured within any of the REF categories.

New materials Y N
Structures Y N
Images Y N
Buildings Y N
Food products and processs Y N
Published geological and/or geomorphological maps Y N
Creative bodies of enquiry Y N
Design processes / programme of research Y N
Multi-platform projects Y N
Curatorial projects Y N
A creative writing collection (a number of related works that were published in forms other than a book-length collection) Y N
A collection of creative and/or critical work (for example, related articles, books, choreographic materials, essays, dramaturgical works, films, recordings, etc.) on a related topic that address different aspects of a single project and are collectively greater than the sum of their parts Y N
Substantial dictionary or encyclopaedia entries and groups of short items including groups of entries Y N

* Definition of research for the REF

For the purposes of the REF, research is defined as a process of investigation leading to new insights, effectively shared.

It includes work of direct relevance to the needs of commerce, industry, culture, society, and to the public and voluntary sectors; scholarship; the invention and generation of ideas, images, performances, artefacts including design, where these lead to new or substantially improved insights; and the use of existing knowledge in experimental development to produce new or substantially improved materials, devices, products and processes, including design and construction. It includes research that is published, disseminated or made publicly available in the form of assessable research outputs, and confidential reports (any item produced for and lodged, in the publication period, with a company, government body or other research sponsor(s), but which has not been published because of its commercial or other sensitivity).

It excludes routine testing and routine analysis of materials, components and processes such as for the maintenance of national standards, as distinct from the development of new analytical techniques. It also excludes the development of teaching materials that do not embody original research.